List of Linux useful commands

Linux is an operating system. It is used for a variety of applications, such as household appliances, automotive entertainment systems and network file system appliances. Linux used as a Network OS for routers, switches, domain name system servers, home networking devices and more.

List of Linux useful commands

Sometimes we needs to manage our applications through command line interfaces at our local machine or remote machine through SSH Access. So, here is a list of linux useful commands. Which you should know to manage applications, manage vps hosting, manage files at servers, manage softwares at servers, manage databases at server side etc. See commands below.

lsLists all files and directories in the present working directory
ls -RLists files in sub-directories as well
ls -aLists hidden files as well
ls -alLists files and directories with detailed information like permissions,size, owner, etc.
cd or cd ~Navigate to HOME directory
cd ..Move one level up
cdTo change to a particular directory
cd /Move to the root directory
cat > filenameCreates a new file
cat filenameDisplays the file content
cat file1 file2 > file3Joins two files (file1, file2) and stores the output in a new file (file3)
mv file “new file path”Moves the files to the new location
mv filename new_file_nameRenames the file to a new filename
rm filenameDeletes a file
sudoAllows regular users to run programs with the security privileges of the superuser or root
mvRenames a directory
ls -lto show file type and access permission
manGives help information on a command
clearClears the terminal
mkdir directorynameCreates a new directory in the present working directory or a at the specified path
rmdirDeletes a directory
rread permission
wwrite permission
xexecute permission
-=no permission
Chown userFor changing the ownership of a file/directory
Chown user:group filenamechange the user as well as group for a file or directory
envDisplays all environment variables
VARIABLE_NAME= variable_valueCreate a new variable
UnsetRemove a variable
export Variable=valueTo set value of an environment variable
sudo adduser usernameTo add a new user
sudo passwd -l ‘username’To change the password of a user
sudo userdel -r ‘username’To remove a newly created user
sudo usermod -a -G GROUPNAME USERNAMETo add a user to a group
sudo deluser USER GROUPNAMETo remove a user from a group
fingerShows information of all the users logged in
finger usernameGives information of a particular user
SSH username@ip-address or hostnamelogin into a remote Linux machine using SSH
Ping hostname=”” or =””To ping and Analyzing network and host connections
dirDisplay files in the current directory of a remote computer
cd “dirname”change directory to “dirname” on a remote computer
put fileupload ‘file’ from local to remote computer
get fileDownload ‘file’ from remote to local computer
ESCTerminate insert mode
uUndo last change
UUndo all changes to the entire line
oOpen a new line (goes into insert mode)
iInsert at cursor (goes into insert mode)
AWrite at the end of line (goes into insert mode)
ddDelete line
~Change case of individual character
cwChange word
SSubstitute entire line and begin to insert at the beginning of the line
ROverwrite characters from cursor onward
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